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On 7 January the Italians celebrate the Flag’s Day (“Festa del Tricolore”), symbol of Italy since 1797. The Italian flag is green, white and red , and it was initially adopted by the Cispadana Republic, then accompanied the Risorgimento struggles and the history of Italy after the Unification (1861). The Italian Constitution, in force since 1 January 1948, in article 12 states: «The flag of the Republic is the Italian tricolour: green, white and red, in three vertical bands of equal size».
«Our flag - declared the President of the Republic Sergio Mattarella for this anniversary - is the emblem of the ...

values ​​of democracy, social justice, respect for human rights and solidarity, affirmed there. Our flag - which is hoisted by our military in peace missions abroad, which is displayed in the offices of the State and local Autonomies, which is waved by citizens in the anniversaries or sporting events - is an expression of the boost to identity and to common commitment. The unity of the country is a precondition of the Republic, but it is also its primary objective. Unity among the territories, respecting their peculiarities and increasing collaboration. Unity of the social body. Unity between generations. Unity in the exercise and in the recognition of rights and duties: it is precisely the fulfillment of the constitutional dictate, starting from the effective equality and equal opportunities of citizens, to strengthen the national dimension that can make us stronger and make Italy a protagonist of European Union.
Italian tricolour is now the flag also of the new Italian citizens, who have been living and working with us for years and who love the common homeland with us. The symbol of unity, therefore, is also a sign of openness. It is a resource that can help us to better face the challenges of the future».
The tricolour was born in Reggio Emilia on 7 January 1797, when the Parliament of the Cispadana Republic, decrees that
«the Cispadana flag in three colours green, white and red is universal». The tricolour is made up of horizontal bands and the center has a quiver with four arrows and the acronym R.C. (Cispadana Republic).
In 1802 the tricolour was adopted during the Napoleonic government of the Italian Republic, but the stripes are replaced by three squares, red white and green, arranged one inside the other. This flag is used today as a symbol of the Presidency of the Republic, and it waves on the Head of State's car.
In 1805, when the territories of the north were renamed
Kingdom of Italy, the flag was modified in the arrangement of the colours. With the Restoration (1814) the flag was outlawed, but in 1831 it became the emblem of Giuseppe Mazzini's Giovine Italia and was in vertical bands like today. In 1834 it was adopted by troops attempting to invade Savoy. In 1848, during the Five Days of Milan, the king of Sardinia, Carlo Alberto assured the Provisional Government of Lombardy that his troops, ready to come to the rescue for the First War of Independence, would march under the banner of the tricolour. The same flag was also adopted by the Bourbon and Papal troops sent to the aid of the Lombards, by Venice and by the insurrectionary government of Sicily. In 1849 it became the symbol of the short season of the Roman Republic.
Proclaimed the Kingdom of Italy, 17 March, 1861, by custom the flag continued to be the tricolour. It became national flag with the Royal Decree No. 2072 of 24 September 1923, when it presented the coat of arms of the Savoy at the center of the white band, as will have the coat of arms of the Republic of Salò during the fascist government in northern Italy. After the birth of the Republic, a presidential legislative decree of 19 June 1946 established the provisional shape of the new flag, confirmed by the Constituent Assembly in the session of 24 March 1947.
(Felice d'Adamo)

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