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Generazione Erasmus

L’Europa è nata dai pellegrinaggi medioevali, secondo il poeta tedesco Goethe, ma oggi vive e si sviluppa grazie a scelte lungimiranti che riassumono i valori di una lunghissima tradizione. I giovani della Generazione Erasmus, che viaggiano e studiano in paesi diversi, sono un valore per l'Europa, come le … - LEGGI TUTTO

Accadde oggi ...

L'ITALIA NELLA STORIA

* 22 gennaio 1506: arriva a Roma il primo contingente di Guardie Svizzere che si occuperanno della sicurezza del papa.

* 22 gennaio 1944: inizio dell'Operazione Shingle durante la Seconda guerra mondiale per lo sbarco ad Anzio.

INCIPIT L'inizio di ...

L’uomo che allevava i gatti

di Mo' Yan

(Cina 1955-*)

Un fascio di luce dorata lo inondò, mentre si toglieva il fucile dalla spalla con la mano destra priva di indice. Il sole al tramonto scendeva velocissimo, descrivendo un arco perfetto, e nei campi riecheggiava frammentario un suono simile al riflusso della marea, accompagnato da un respiro triste, a tratti intenso, a tratti debole. Facendo grande attenzione appoggiò il fucile sul terreno coperto di chiazze di muschio della dimensione di monete di rame. Nel deporre l’arma, osservò la terra umida e un immensa tristezza gli serrò il sudore...

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Cara italia, ...

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Art. 101

Justice is administered in the name of the people.Judges are subject only to the law.

Art. 102

Judicial proceedings are exercised by ordinary magistrates empowered and regulated by the provisions concerning the Judiciary.

Extraordinary or special judges may not be established. Only specialised sections for specific matters within the ordinary judicial bodies may be established, and these sections may include the participation of qualified citizens who are not members of the ...

Judiciary.

The law regulates the cases and forms of the direct participation of the people in the administration of justice.

Art. 103

The Council of State and the other organs of judicial administration have jurisdiction over the protection of legitimate rights before the public administration and, in particular matters laid out by law, also of subjective rights.

The Court of Auditors has jurisdiction in matters of public accounts and in other matters laid out by law.

Military tribunals in times of war have the jurisdiction established by law.

In times of peace they have jurisdiction only for military crimes committed by members of the armed forces.

Art. 104

The Judiciary is a branch that is autonomous and independent of all other powers.

The High Council of the Judiciary is presided over by the President of the Republic.

The first president and the general prosecutor of the Court of Cassation are members by right.

Two thirds of the members are elected by all the ordinary judges belonging to the various categories, and one third are elected by Parliament in joint session from among full university professors of law and lawyers with fifteen years of practice.

The Council elects a vice-president from among those members designated by Parliament.

Elected members of the Council remain in office for four years and cannot be immediately re-elected.

They may not, while in office, be registered in professional rolls, nor serve in Parliament or on a Regional Council.

Art. 105

The High Council of the Judiciary, in accordance with the regulations of the Judiciary, has jurisdiction for employment, assignments and transfers, promotions and disciplinary measures of judges.

Art. 106

Judges are appointed by means of competitive examinations.

The law on the regulations of the Judiciary allows the appointment, even by election, of honorary judges for all the functions performed by single judges.

Following a proposal by the High Council of the Judiciary, full university professors of law and lawyers with fifteen years of practice and registered in the special professional rolls for the higher courts may be appointed for their outstanding merits as Cassation councillors.

Art. 107

Judges may not be removed from office; they may not be dismissed or suspended from office or assigned to other courts or functions unless by a decision of the High Council of the Judiciary, taken either for the reasons and with the guarantees of defence established by the provisions concerning the organisation of Judiciary or with the consent of the judges themselves.

The Minister of Justice has the power to originate disciplinary action.

Judges are distinguished only by their different functions.

The state prosecutor enjoys the guarantees established in the prosecutor’s favour by the provisions concerning the organisation of the Judiciary.

Art. 108

The provisionsconcerning the organisation of the Judiciary and the judges are laid out by law.

The law ensures the independence of judges of special courts, of state prosecutors of those courts, and of other persons participating in the administration of justice.

Art. 109

The legal authorities have direct use of the judicial police.

Art. 110

Without prejudice to the authority of the High Council of the Judiciary, the Minister of Justice has responsibility for the organisation and functioning of those services involved with justice.

Art. 111

Jurisdiction is implemented through due process regulated by law.

All court trials are conducted with adversary proceedings and the parties are entitled to equal conditions before an impartial judge in third party position.

The law provides for the reasonable duration of trials.In criminal law trials, the law provides that the alleged offender shall be promptly informed confidentially of the nature and reasons for the charges that are brought and shall have adequate time and conditions to prepare a defence.

The defendant shall have the right to cross-examine or to have cross-examined before a judge the persons making accusations and to summon and examine persons for the defence in the same conditions as the prosecution, as well as the right to produce all other evidence in favour of the defence.

The defendant is entitled to the assistance of an interpreter in the case that he or she does not speak or understand the language in which the court proceedings are conducted.In criminal law proceedings, the formation of evidence is based on the principle of adversary hearings.

The guilt of the defendant cannot be established on the basis of statements by persons who, out of their own free choice, have always voluntarily avoided undergoing cross-examination by the defendant or the defence counsel.

The law regulates the cases in which the formation of evidence does not occur in an adversary proceeding with the consent of the defendant or owing to reasons of ascertained objective impossibility or proven illicit conduct.

All judicial decisions shall include a statement of reasons.

Appeals to the Court of Cassation in cases of violations of the law are always allowed against sentences and against measures affecting personal freedom pronounced by ordinary and special courts.

This rule can only be waived in cases of sentences by military tribunals in time of war.

Appeals to the Court of Cassation against decisions of the Council of State and the Court of Auditors are permitted only for reasons of jurisdiction.

Art. 112

The public prosecutor has the obligation to institute criminal proceedings.

Art. 113

The judicial safeguarding of rights and legitimate interests before the organs of ordinary or administrative justice is always permitted against acts of the public administration.

Such judicial protection may not be excluded or limited to particular kinds of appeal or for particular categories of acts.

The law determines which judicial bodies are empowered to annul acts of public administration in the cases and with the consequences provided for by the law itself.

Tra vigile e vigilia

Nel viaggio tra le parole italiane alla ricerca del senso perduto oggi ho scelto di partire da una pagina del vocabolario di latino, in cui si trovano le parole legate al verbo vìgeo/vigère. Si tratta di un verbo intransitivo, cioè tale che, per completare il suo significato, non richiede nessun elemento lessicale aggiuntivo ... - LEGGI TUTTO

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«Gli Stati che aderiscono al presente Trattato riaffermano la loro fede negli scopi e nei principi dello Statuto delle Nazioni Unite e il loro desiderio di vivere in pace con tutti i popoli e con tutti i governi. Si dicono determinati a salvaguardare la libertà dei loro popoli, il loro comune retaggio e la loro civiltà, fondati sui principi della democrazia, sulle libertà individuali e sulla preminenza del diritto». (Preambolo al Trattato della NATO, firmato a Washington il 4 aprile 1949)

EXPLICIT La fine di ...

Dei delitti e delle pene

di Cesare Beccaria

(Milano 1738-1794)

… Da quanto si è veduto finora può cavarsi un teorema generale molto utile, ma poco conforme all'uso, legislatore il più ordinario delle nazioni, cioè: perché ogni pena non sia una violenza di uno o di molti contro un privato cittadino, dev'essere essenzialmente pubblica, pronta, necessaria, la minima delle possibili nelle date circostanze, proporzionata a' delitti, dettata dalle leggi.

Galleria degli Artisti

Test 2 Letteratura ‘900

 

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