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* 28 settembre 1464: Corrado da Fogliano diventa governatore di Genova per gli Sforza di Milano.

* 28 settembre 1938: inizia la Conferenza di Monaco tra Italia, Germania, Francia e Gran Bretagna.

INCIPIT L'inizio di ...

Abitiamo la terra

di Vladimir Maksimov

(Russia 1930-1995)

Per il quinto giorno consecutivo le piogge scorazzano e frugano sul tetto della nostra tenda. E benché il concetto di giorno, in quest’angolo di mondo in cui luce e notte s’avvicendano ogni sei mesi, sia molto ma molto relativo, la cosa non mi consola affatto, anzi…

Euro e Schengen

L'Euro (€) è la valuta ufficiale di 19 dei 27 paesi membri dell'Unione Europea. Questi paesi costituiscono la cosiddetta area dell'euro (o eurozona): Austria, Belgio, Cipro, Estonia, Finlandia, Francia, Germania, Grecia, Irlanda, Italia, Lettonia, Lituania, Lussemburgo, Malta, Paesi Bassi, Portogallo, … - LEGGI TUTTO

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Art. 114

The Republic is composed of the Municipalities, the Provinces, the Metropolitan Cities, the Regions and the State. Municipalities, provinces, metropolitan cities and regions are autonomous entities having their own statutes, powers and functions in accordance with the principles laid down in the Constitution.

Rome is the capital of the Republic. Its status is regulated by State Law.

Art. 115


Art. 116

Friuli-Venezia Giulia, Sardinia, ...

Sicily, Trentino-Alto Adige/Südtirol and Valle d’Aosta/Vallée d’Aoste have special forms and conditions of autonomy pursuant to the special statutes adopted by constitutional law.

The Trentino-Alto Adige/Südtirol Region is composed of the autonomous provinces of Trent and Bolzano.

Additional special forms and conditions of autonomy, related to the areas specified in art. 117, paragraph three and paragraph two, letter l) - limited to the organisational requirements of the Justice of the Peace - and letters n) and s), may be attributed to other Regions by State Law, upon the initiative of the Region concerned, after consultation with the local authorities, in compliance with the principles set forth in art. 119.

Said Law is approved by both Houses of Parliament with the absolute majority of their members, on the basis of an agreement between the State and the Region concerned.

Art. 117

Legislative powers shall be vested in the State and the Regions in compliance with the Constitution and with the constraints deriving from EU legislation and international obligations.

The State has exclusive legislative powers in the following subject matters:

  1. foreign policy and international relations of the State; relations between the State and the European Union; right of asylum and legal status of non-EU citizens;
  2. immigration;
  3. relations between the Republic and religious denominations;
  4. defence and armed forces; State security; armaments, ammunition and explosives;
  5. the currency, savings protection and financial markets; competition protection; foreign exchange system; state taxation and accounting systems; equalisation of financial resources;
  6. state bodies and relevant electoral laws; state referenda; elections to the European Parliament;
  7. legal and administrative organisation of the State and of national public agencies;
  8. public order and security, with the exception of local administrative police;
  9. citizenship, civil status and register offices;
  10. jurisdiction and procedural law; civil and criminal law; administrative judicial system;
  11. determination of the basic level of benefits relating to civil and social entitlements to be guaranteed throughout the national territory;
  12. general provisions on education;
  13. social security;
  14. electoral legislation, governing bodies and hfundamental functions of the Municipalities, Provinces and Metropolitan Cities;
  15. customs, protection of national borders and international prophylaxis;
  16. weights and measures; standard time; statistical and computerised coordination of data of state, regional and local administrations; works of the intellect;
  17. protection of the environment, the ecosystem and cultural heritage.

Concurring legislation applies to the following subject matters: international and EU relations of the Regions; foreign trade; job protection and safety; education, subject to the autonomy of educational institutions and with the exception of vocational education and training; professions; scientific and technological research and innovation support for productive sectors; health protection; nutrition; sports; disaster relief; land-use planning; civil ports and airports; large transport and navigation networks; communications; national production, transport and distribution of energy; complementary and supplementary social security; harmonisation of public accounts and coordination of public finance and the taxation system; enhancement of cultural and environmental assets, including the promotion and organisation of cultural activities; savings banks, rural banks, regional credit institutions; regional land and agricultural credit institutions. In the subject matters covered by concurring legislation legislative powers are vested in the Regions, except for the determination of the fundamental principles, which are laid down in State legislation.

The Regions have legislative powers in all subject matters that are not expressly covered by State legislation.

The Regions and the autonomous provinces of Trent and Bolzano take part in preparatory decision making process of EU legislative acts in the areas that fall within their responsibilities.

They are also responsible for the implementation of international agreements and EU measures, subject to the rules set out in State law which regulate the exercise of subsidiary powers by the State in the case of non-performance by the Regions and autonomous provinces.

Regulatory powers shall be vested in the State with respect to the subject matters of exclusive legislation, subject to any delegations of such powers to the Regions. Regulatory powers shall be vested in the Regions in all other subject matters.

Municipalities, provinces and metropolitan cities have regulatory powers as to the organisation and implementation of the functions attributed to them.Regional laws shall remove any hindrances to the full equality of men and women in social, cultural and economic life and promote equal access to elected offices for men and women.

Agreements between a Region and other Regions that aim at improving the performance of regional functions and that may also envisage the establishment of joint bodies shall be ratified by regional law.

In the areas falling within their responsibilities, Regions may enter into agreements with foreign States and with local authorities of other States in the cases and according to the forms laid down by State legislation.

Art. 118

Administrative functions are attributed to the Municipalities, unless they are attributed to the provinces, metropolitan cities and regions or to the State, pursuant to the principles of subsidiarity, differentiation and proportionality, to ensure their uniform implementation.

Municipalities, provinces and metropolitan cities carry out administrative functions of their own as well as the functions assigned to them by State or by regional legislation, according to their respective competences.State legislation shall provide for co-ordinated action between the State and the Regions in the subject matters as per Article 117, paragraph two, letters b) and h), and also provide for agreements and co-ordinated action in the field of cultural heritage preservation.

The State, regions, metropolitan cities, provinces and municipalities shall promote the autonomous initiatives of citizens, both as individuals and as members of associations, relating to activities of general interest, on the basis of the principle of subsidiarity.

Art. 119

Municipalities, provinces, metropolitan cities and regions shall have revenue and expenditure autonomy.Municipalities, provinces, metropolitan cities and regions shall have independent financial resources.

They set and levy taxes and collect revenues of their own, in compliance with the Constitution and according to the principles of coordination of State finances and the tax system.

They share in the tax revenues related to their respective territories.

State legislation shall provide for an equalisation fund - with no allocation constraints - for the territories having lower percapita taxable capacity.

Revenues raised from the above-mentioned sources shall enable municipalities, provinces, metropolitan cities and regions to fully finance the public functions attributed to them.

The State shall allocate supplementary resources and adopt special measures in favour of specific municipalities, provinces, metropolitan cities and regions to promote economic development along with social cohesion and solidarity, to reduce economic and social imbalances, to foster the exercise of the rights of the person or to achieve goals other than those pursued in the ordinary implementation of their functions.

Municipalities, provinces, metropolitan cities and regions have their own assets, which are allocated to them pursuant to general principles laid down in State legislation.

They may resort to indebtedness only as a means of financing investment expenditure.

State guarantees on loans contracted for this purpose are not admissible.

Art. 120

The Regions may not levy import or export or transit duties between Regions or adopt measures that in any way obstruct the freedom of movement of persons or goods between the Regions. Regions may not limit the right of citizens to work in any part whatsoever of the national territory.

The Government can act for bodies of the regions, metropolitan cities, provinces and municipalities if the latter fail to comply with international rules and treaties or EU legislation, or in the case of grave danger for public safety and security, or whenever such action is necessary to preserve legal or economic unity and in particular to guarantee the basic level of benefits relating to civil and social entitlements, regardless of the geographic borders of local authorities.

The law shall lay down the procedures to ensure that subsidiary powers are exercised in compliance with the principles of subsidiarity and of loyal co-operation.

Art. 121

The organs of the Region are: the Regional Council, the Regional Executive and its President.

The Regional Council shall exercise the legislative powers attributed to the Region as well as the other functions conferred by the Constitution and the laws.It may submit bills to Parliament.

The Regional Executive is the executive body of the Region.

The President of the Executive represents the Region, directs the policymaking of the Executive and is responsible for it, promulgates laws and regional statutes, directs the administrative functions delegated to the Region by the State, in conformity with the instructions of the Government of the Republic.

Art. 122

The electoral system and the cases of ineligibility and incompatibility of the President, the other members of the Regional Executive and the Regional councillors shall be established by a regional law in accordance with the fundamental principles established by a law of the Republic, which also establishes the term of elective offices.

No one may belong at the same time to a Regional Council or to a Regional Executive and to one of the Houses of Parliament, to another Regional Council, or to the European Parliament.

The Council shall elect a President amongst its members and a Bureau.

Regional councillors are not answerable for the opinions expressed and votes cast in the exercise of their functions. The President of the Regional Executive shall be elected by universal and direct suffrage, unless the regional statute provides otherwise.

The elected President shall appoint and dismiss the members of the Executive.

Art. 123

Each Region shall have a statute which, in harmony with the Constitution, shall lay down the form of government and basic principles for the organisation of the Region and the conduct of its business.

The statute shall regulate the right to initiate legislation and promote referenda on the laws and administrative measures of the Region as well as the publication of laws and of regional regulations.

Regional statutes are adopted and amended by the Regional Council with a law approved by an absolute majority of its members, with two subsequent deliberations at an interval of not less than two months. This law does not require the visé of the Government commissioner.

The Government of the Republic may submit the constitutional legitimacy of the regional statutes to the Constitutional Court within thirty days from their publication.The statute is submitted to popular referendum if one fiftieth of the electors of the Region or one-fifth of the members of the Regional Council so request within three months from its publication.

The statute that is submitted to referendum is not promulgated if it is not approved by the majority of valid votes.

In each Region, statutes regulate the activity of the Council of local authorities as a consultative body on relations between the Regions and local authorities.

Art. 124


Art. 125

Administrative tribunals of the first instance shall be established in the Region, in accordance with the rules established by the law of the Republic. Sections may be established in places other than the regional capital.

Art. 126

The Regional Council may be dissolved and the President of the Executive may be removed with a reasoned decree of the President of the Republic in the case of acts in contrast with the Constitution or grave violations of the law.

The dissolution or removal may also be decided for reasons of national security.

The aforementioned decree is adopted after consultation with a committee of Deputies and Senators for regional affairs which is set up in the manner established by a law of the Republic.

The Regional Council may adopt a reasoned motion of no confidence against the President of the Executive that is undersigned by at least one-fifth of its members and adopted by roll call vote with an absolute majority of members.

The motion may not be debated before three days have elapsed since its introduction.

The adoption of a no confidence motion against a President of the Executive elected by universal and direct suffrage, and the removal, permanent inability, death or voluntary resignation of the President of the Executive entail the resignation of the Executive and the dissolution of the Council.

The same effects are produced by the contemporary resignation of the majority of the Council members.

Art. 127

The Government may submit the constitutional legitimacy of a regional law to the Constitutional Court within sixty days from its publication, when it deems that the regional law exceeds the competence of the Region.

A Region may submit the constitutional legitimacy of a State or regional law or measure having the force of law to the Constitutional Court within sixty days from its publication, when it deems that said law or measure infringes upon its competence.

Art. 128


Art. 129


Art. 130


Art. 131

The following Regions shall be established: Piedmont; Valle d’Aosta; Lombardy; Trentino-Alto Adige; Veneto; Friuli-Venezia Giulia; Liguria; Emilia-Romagna; Tuscany; Umbria; The Marches; Latium; Abruzzi; Molise; Campania; Apulia; Basilicata; Calabria; Sicily; Sardinia.

Art. 132

By a constitutional law, after consultation with the Regional Councils, a merger between existing Regions or the creation of new Regions having a minimum of one million inhabitants may be decided upon, when the request has been made by a number of Municipal Councils representing not less than one-third of the populations involved, and the request has been approved by referendum by a majority of said populations

.The Provinces and Municipalities which request to be detached from one Region and incorporated in another may be allowed to do so, following a referendum and a law of the Republic, which obtains the majority of the populations of the Province or Provinces and of the Municipality or Municipalities concerned, and after having heard the Regional Councils.

Art. 133

Changes in provincial boundaries and the institution of new Provinces within a Region are regulated by the laws of the Republic, on the initiative of the Municipalities, after consultation with the Region.

The Region, after consultation with the populations involved, may establish through its laws new Municipalities within its own territory and modify their dfistricts and names.

"Italia Italy" post

«Facciamo più quello che è giusto, invece di quello che ci conviene. Educhiamo i figli ad essere onesti, non furbi». (Tiziano Terzani, giornalista e scrittore, Firenze 1938-2004)

EXPLICIT La fine di ...

La roba

di Giovanni Verga

(Vizzini-Catania 1840-1922)

… Sicché quando gli dissero che era tempo di lasciare la sua roba per pensare all’anima, uscì nel cortile come un pazzo, barcollando, e andava ammazzando a colpi di bastone le sue anitre e i suoi tacchini, e strillava: - Roba mia, vientene con me!

«Italiani» senza Italia

Non c’era ancora l’Italia, ma c’erano gli italiani. Nel Decameron di Giovanni Boccaccio (1313-1375) per la prima volta si parla esplicitamente di italiani, nella nona novella della seconda giornata. L’allegra brigata, che si era allontanata dalla città per sfuggire alla grande peste del Trecento ... - LEGGI TUTTO

Galleria degli Artisti

Test 5 Storia del '900


1 euro per 'Italia Italy'




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