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L'ITALIA NELLA STORIA

* 7 gennaio 1313: Cangrande I della Scala sconfigge i padovani a Camisano Vicentino (Vicenza).

* 7 gennaio 1797: a Reggio Emilia nasce la Bandiera Italiana.

* 7 gennaio 1935: Benito Mussolini e il ministro degli esteri francese Pierre Laval firmano l'Accordo franco-italiano.

INCIPIT L'inizio di ...

Cristo si è fermato a Eboli

di Carlo Levi

(Torino 1902-1975)

Sono passati molti anni, pieni di guerra, e di quello che si usa chiamare la Storia. Spinto qua e là alla ventura, non ho potuto finora mantenere la promessa fatta, lasciandoli, ai miei contadini, di tornare fra loro, e non so davvero se e quando potrò mai mantenerla. Ma, chiuso in una stanza, e in un mondo chiuso, mi è grato riandare con la memoria a quell’altro mondo, serrato nel dolore e negli usi, negato alla Storia e allo Stato, eternamente paziente; a quella mia terra senza conforto e dolcezza, dove il contadino vive, nella miseria e nella lontananza, la sua immobile civiltà, su un suolo arido, nella presenza della morte …

Ignoranti crescono

«È chiaro ormai da molti anni che alla fine del percorso scolastico troppi ragazzi scrivono male in italiano, leggono poco e faticano a esprimersi oralmente. Da tempo i docenti universitari denunciano le carenze linguistiche dei loro studenti (grammatica, sintassi, lessico), con errori appena tollerabili in ... - LEGGI TUTTO

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Cara italia, ...

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Long history of Italy winds through splendours and decadence. The name Italy is used initially in the sixth century BC to indicate the area corresponding to today's southern Calabria. In the following century the historian Antiochus of Syracuse wrote an essay on Italy, which in the fourth century includes the current southern regions south of Paestum. At the beginning of the III century BC it also includes Campania and after the First Punic War it reaches the Arno and Esino rivers between Tuscany and the Marches…

In the days of Augustus geographically and politically it was similar to that of today. In 27 BC the first Roman emperor divided Italy into eleven regions Sicily and Sardinia were external provinces like the rest of the empire. Precise borders were fixed and in the territory of the current Principality of Monaco the Romans built the Turbia Trophy with the inscription: Huc usque Italy, abhinc Gallia (So far Italy, hence the Gaul).
Italy is described by Pliny the Elder in the third book of the Naturalis Historia (77 AD), where the geographical extension was affirmed from the seas to the Alps, with the final statement: "This is Italy sacred to the gods".

An official recognition of Italy, which also included Sicily, Sardinia and Corsica, occurred in 292, when the Italic Diocese was established by the emperor Diocletian. When the Roman Empire fell (476), Odoacre declared himself King of Italy, a title that then passed to the Ostrogoth Theodoric when he dismissed Odoacre (493). In the 6th century the Byzantine emperor Justinian reconquered Italy, which he considered not a province, but the "lady of the provinces" ("domina provinciarum").
The territorial unity was broken with the arrival of the Lombards (568), who placed the capital in Pavia, while the capital of the Byzantines was in Ravenna. Between the seventh and tenth centuries the name Italy was limited to a part of the traditional territory and in the south there was the Duchy of Italy, which then became the Duchy of Benevento, while in Piedmont there was the Marca of Italy.
The birth of the Holy Roman Empire, with Charlemagne (800), led to an organization of the imperial territories that also included the Kingdom of Italy. The decadence of the Christian empire led to the reduction of the territory to Germany and central-northern Italy. The Northern Municipalities rebelled against the German emperor and, helped by the Pope and Sicily, defeated Federico Barbarossa. The autonomy claimed by many cities led to the affirmation of free Municipalities and Maritime Republics. The last splendours of the Empire were with Frederick II, who became King of Italy and Sicily, supported the arts and encouraged the birth of the first Italian literature with the Sicilian School.
At the time of Dante Alighieri Italy, in addition to the territorial significance, acquired a cultural and linguistic meaning; in the following centuries the historical and geographical individuality of Italy progressively became established and the anxiety of political unity emerged. From the fourteenth century the Italian language gradually spread and replaced Latin as the official language of the various Italian states. Italian pride emerged in many historical events, such as the Challenge of Barletta in 1503: thirteen Italian knights challenged thirteen French knights who had denigrated Italians.
In the seventeenth century Italy was in a phase of decline with the Spanish domination, which was followed by the Austrian domination. In the eighteenth century the project of a political unity of Italy was relaunched and at the end of the century the first signs of the Risorgimento appeared. In 1797 in Reggio Emilia, in the Cispadana Republic created by Napoleone, the tricolor flag was adopted and then became the flag of Italy. The Roman Republic (1798) and the Neapolitan Republic (1799) also are considered among the first signs of the Risorgimento.
The birth of the Italian State was anticipated in the Napoleonic period by the Italian Republic (1802) and the Kingdom of Italy (1805-1814). The Risorgimento epic, with great passions, revolutionary movements and wars of independence, led to the birth of the Kingdom of Italy March 17, 1861: the capital became Turin, Vittorio Emanuele II was proclaimed king of Italy.
Veneto returned to Italy after the third War of Independence (1866); Rome and Lazio joined the new state in 1870 and the following year Rome became the capital; Trentino, Friuli Venezia Giulia, Istria and Fiume became part of the Kingdom of Italy after the First world war. The defeat in the Second World War resulted in the loss of Istria and Dalmatia and triggered the persecution of Italians by the former Yugoslavia with the tragedy of the sinkholes. The territorial affair ended in 1954 with the return of Trieste to Italy. (Felice d’Adamo)

"Italia Italy" post

«Coltivo una rosa bianca, / in luglio come in gennaio, / per l’amico sincero / che mi porge la sua mano franca. / E per il crudele che mi strappa / il cuore con cui vivo, / né il cardo né ortica coltivo: / coltivo la rosa bianca». (José Martì, scrittore e politico cubano, L’Avana 1853-1895)

EXPLICIT La fine di ...

I racconti di Sebastopoli

di Lev Nikolaevič Tolstòj

(Russia 1828-1910)

… A chi nuota vicino a riva si può benissimo dire: “Tienti a quella sporgenza, a quel promontorio, a quella torre” e così via.

Ma viene il momento in cui il nuotatore si è allontanato dalla riva, e devono e possono servirgli da guida soltanto le stelle, e la bussola che indica la direzione.

E a noi sono state date sia le une che l’altra.

A Praga con Carlo IV

Forti legami hanno unito Carlo IV (1316–1378), re boemo e imperatore del Sacro Romano Impero, all’Italia. Il sovrano, tra le figure più importanti della storia europea, è sinonimo indiscusso di Repubblica Ceca, ma la mente dei più informati corre anche al nostro paese. Proprio all’imperatore che fece la storia ... - LEGGI TUTTO

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