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* 24 maggio 1915: l'Italia entra nella Prima guerra mondiale a fianco della Francia e della Gran Bretagna.

* 24 maggio 1928: Umberto Nobile con il dirigibile Italia raggiunge per la seconda volta il Polo Nord.

* 24 maggio 1941: durante la Seconda guerra mondiale al largo di Siracusa gli inglesi affondano la nave italiana Conte Rosso provocando 2300 morti.

INCIPIT L'inizio di ...

La Cripta dei Cappuccini

di Joseph Roth

(Ucraina 1894-1939)

Il nostro nome è Trotta. La nostra casata è originaria di Sipolje, in Slovenia. Casata, dico; perché noi non siamo una famiglia. Sipolje non esiste più, da tempo ormai. Oggi, insieme con parecchi comuni limitrofi, forma un centro più grosso. Si sa, è la volontà dei tempi. Gli uomini non sanno stare soli. Si uniscono in assurdi aggruppamenti, e soli non sanno stare neanche i villaggi. Nascono così entità assurde…

Lieve come il vento

Era fragile come un filo d’erba delle sue montagne e candido come un bambino. Tutto il contrario del nome che gli era stato imposto al battesimo e che nell’originale nordico lo indicava come “potente in battaglia”. Riziero toccava sì e no il metro e venti di altezza. Girava per la città come una nuvola bianca e … - LEGGI TUTTO

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On 17 March National Unity, the Constitution, the Anthem and the Flag’s Day is celebrated. The anniversary of the birth of contemporary Italy, which took place in 1861, is an opportunity to strengthen national unity by rediscovering the symbols that have accompanied the history of Italian people. By law 8 November 2012, the Parliament also introduced the compulsory study of the national anthem at school "in the activities aimed at acquiring knowledge and skills related to Citizenship and Constitution".

The aim of the law is to disseminate ...

historical knowledge of the path of unification of the Italian state and to keep alive the sense of civic belonging. The measure also provides that schools organize educational paths and initiatives to inform about the significance of the Risorgimento and the events that led to national unity and the approval of the Constitution.



The national anthem «Brothers of Italy» was written in the autumn of 1847 by a patriotic student, Goffredo Mameli from Genoa. Shortly after another Genoese, Michele Novaro, wrote the music of the «Inno di Mameli» in one night in Turin. It became «The song of Italians» in the Risorgimento battles and not by chance Giuseppe Verdi, in his «Anthem of the Nations» in 1862, assigned the task of symbolizing Italy, precisely to «Brothers of Italy» - and not to the «Royal March» - placing it beside «God save the Queen» and the «Marseillaise».

Sung for a long time during the Risorgimento (period leading to unification of Italy) but quieted during the fascist dictatorship, the «Inno di Mameli» became the national anthem of the Italian Republic on October 12, 1946. "On the proposal of the Minister of War - reads ...

in the minutes of that distant Council of Ministers presided over by Alcide De Gasperi - it has been established that the oath of the Armed Forces to the Republic and its Head will take place on next 4 November, and that, provisionally, the «Inno di Mameli» is adopted as a national anthem ". In the following years there were several attempts to make «Brothers of Italy» official, never arrived in port, despite being the hymn sung in stadiums and national celebrations.

A turning point for the song that unites the Italians took place with Carlo Azeglio Ciampi as president of the Republic (1999-2006). With the law of 8 November 2012, the Parliament also introduced the obligatory study of the national anthem at school "in the context of activities aimed at acquiring knowledge and skills related to" Citizenship and Constitution". After 71 years of «Brothers of Italy» as a provisional national anthem, on 15 November 2017 the Parliament approved it as official «The Republic - states the law - recognizes the text of «The song of Italians» by Goffredo Mameli and the score original music by Michele Novaro as a national anthem".

Born in Genoa in 1827, Goffredo Mameli lived only 22 years, but he is among the most famous figures of the Italian Risorgimento. He studied at the Pious Schools of Genoa, he cared about the unity of Italy and composed romantic verses: «The young crusader», «The last song», «The virgin and the lover». In 1848 he organized an expedition to support the insurrection of Milan and went to the rescue of Nino Bixio with three hundred volunteers. This commitment earned him the recruitment into the army of Garibaldi with the rank of captain. He died in 1849, following an infected wound that was procured during the defense of the second Roman Republic.

Michele Novaro, born in Genoa in 1818, was a composer of several hymns and the author of a collection of patriotic songs. Convinced liberal, he fought for the independence of Italy, also organizing shows for fundraising for Garibaldian enterprises. In Genoa he founded a folk choral school, to which he dedicated himself for the rest of his life. He was harassed by financial difficulties and health problems and died poor in 1885. Now he rests next to Mazzini's tomb in the monumental Cemetery of Staglieno (Genoa), where his former students erected a monument to him. (Felice d’Adamo)



Brothers of Italy,
Italy has awakened,
the helmet of Scipio
has bound her head.

Fratelli d'Italia,
l'Italia s'è desta,
dell'elmo di Scipio
s'è cinta la testa.


Where is Victory?
Victory will bow her head,
since a slave of Rome
God made her.

Dov'è la Vittoria?
Le porga la chioma,
ché schiava di Roma
Iddio la creò.


Let us unite in a cohort,
We are ready for death.
We're ready for death,
Italy has called!

Stringiamci a coorte,
siam pronti alla morte.
Siam pronti alla morte,
l'Italia chiamò.

We were for centuries
Downtrodden and derided,
because we are not one people,
because we are divided.

Noi fummo da secoli
calpesti, derisi,
perché non siam popolo,
perché siam divisi.


Let's be united by
one flag, one hope
to be united
already the hour has struck.

Raccolgaci un'unica
bandiera, una speme:
di fonderci insieme
già l'ora suonò.


Let us unite in a cohort,
We are ready for death.
We're ready for death,
Italy has called!

Stringiamci a coorte,
siam pronti alla morte.
Siam pronti alla morte,
l'Italia chiamò.


Let us unite and love one another,
unity and love
Show the people
God's ways.

Uniamoci, amiamoci,
l'unione e l'amore
rivelano ai popoli
le vie del Signore.


Let us swear to free
Our native soil;
United, by God,
Who can defeat us?

Giuriamo far libero
il suolo natio:
uniti, per Dio,
chi vincer ci può?


Let us unite in a cohort,
We are ready for death.
We're ready for death,
Italy has called!

Stringiamci a coorte,
siam pronti alla morte.
Siam pronti alla morte,
l'Italia chiamò.


From the Alps to Sicily
everywhere is Legnano,
Every man of Ferruccio
Has the heart, has the hand

Dall'Alpi a Sicilia
Dovunque è Legnano,
Ogn'uom di Ferruccio
Ha il core, ha la mano,


The children of Italy
are called Balilla,
The sound of each bell
tolled the Vespers.

I bimbi d'Italia
Si chiaman Balilla,
Il suon d'ogni squilla
I Vespri suonò. 


Let us unite in a cohort,
We are ready for death.
We're ready for death,
Italy has called!

Stringiamci a coorte,
siam pronti alla morte.
Siam pronti alla morte,
l'Italia chiamò.


Reeds are bending
the sold Swords:
Already the Eagle of Austria
Has lost its feathers.

Son giunchi che piegano
Le spade vendute:
Già l'Aquila d'Austria
Le penne ha perdute.


The blood of Italy,
The Polish blood
She drank with the Cossack
But it burned her heart.

Il sangue d'Italia,
Il sangue Polacco,
Bevé, col cosacco,
Ma il cor le bruciò.


Let us unite in a cohort,
We are ready for death.
We're ready for death,
Italy has called!
Let us unite in a cohort,
We are ready for death.
We're ready for death,
Italy has called!

Stringiamci a coorte,
siam pronti alla morte.
Siam pronti alla morte,
l'Italia chiamò.
Stringiamci a coorte,
siam pronti alla morte.
Siam pronti alla morte,
l'Italia chiamò!


One of the symbols of Italy and of the united and supportive national community is certainly the tricolor. Article 12 of the Italian Constitution, in force since January 1, 1948, states: "The flag of the Republic is the Italian tricolor: green, white and red, with three vertical bands of equal size".
The tricolor has over two hundred years of life. It was born in Reggio Emilia on January 7, 1797, when the Parliament of the Cispadana Republic decreed that "the Cispadana flag of three colors green, white and red" had to be universal. The tricolor is made up of horizontal bands and in the center has a quiver with four arrows and the initials R.C. (
Repubblica Cispadana, Cispadana Republic).
In 1802 the tricolor was adopted during the Napoleonic government of the Italian Republic, but the stripes are replaced by three squares, red white and green, arranged one inside the other. This flag is used today as a symbol of the Presidency of the Republic, and it flies on the Quirinale and on the car of the Head of State.
In 1805, when the territories of the north were renamed the Kingdom of Italy, it was changed to the arrangement of colors. With the Restoration (1814) the flag was outlawed, but in 1831 it became the emblem of
Young Italy movement by Giuseppe Mazzini and it was in vertical bands like today. In 1834 it was adopted by troops attempting to invade Savoy. In 1848, during the Five Days of Milan, the king of Sardinia, Carlo Alberto, assures the Provisional Government of Lombardy and then his troops, ready to come in help for the first war of independence, marched under the banner of the tricolor. The banner is also adopted by the Bourbon and Papal troops sent to the aid of the Lombards, from Venice and from the insurrectionary government of Sicily. In 1849 it became the symbol of the brief season of the Roman Republic.
After the Kingdom of Italy was proclaimed, March 17, 1861, by custom the flag continues to be the tricolor. It became national flag with the Royal Decree no. 2072 of September 24th, 1923, when he presented the coat of arms of Savoy dynasty at the center of the white band, as il had the coat of arms of Salò Republic during the fascist government in northern Italy. After the birth of the Italian Republic, a presidential legislative decree of 19 June 1946 established the provisional manner of the new flag, confirmed by the Constituent Assembly in the session of March 24, 1947.
To remember the first official recognition of the flag as symbol of Italy and national unity every year, on January 7, the
Flag Day (Festa del Tricolore) is celebrated. (Felice d’Adamo)

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«Il mondo non sarà distrutto dai malvagi, ma da coloro che restano a guardarli senza fare niente». (Albert Einstein, fisico, Ulma-Germania 1879-1955)

EXPLICIT La fine di ...

Abbi cura di me

di Simone Cristicchi

(Roma 1977-*)

… È bello essere al modo, pensa Simone mentre accarezza senza toccarla la sua immagine e quella di Stefano, tenendo uniti, nel filo delle sue mani, finito e infinito.

È un momento da fermare, e in cui fermarsi. È un respiro di assoluto.

Non siamo soli. Mai lo saremo.

Esiste una casa, un senso, una scintilla, un amore. Esiste per tutti. Esiste per sempre.

Adesso apri lentamente gli occhi / E stammi vicino / Perché mi trema la voce / Come se fossi un bambino. / Ma oltre l’ultimo giorno / In cui potrò respirare / Tu stringimi forte / E non lasciarmi andare / Abbi cura di me.

«Calabria ribelle»

Un luogo comune vuole che in Calabria la Storia sia sempre di passaggio. Per smentire questo luogo comune è nata l’idea dell’antologia storica Calabria guerriera e ribelle, di Giampiero Mele con contributi di Felice Vinci, Gianfranco Confessore e Oreste Parise.Annibale, Spartaco erano andati in ... - LEGGI TUTTO

Galleria degli Artisti

Test 3 Storia del '900


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